Thread Subject: Re: teitac-videoCaptioning Definition
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From: Robinson, Norman B - Washington, DC
Date: Thu, Mar 15 2007 12:35 PM
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I'm all for a better functional definition.
I think we are lacking some specifics.
1. Is there a technical reference that speaks to technical requirements for captioning in different formats? Should there be? Do we need specific technical accessibility standards that describes what captioning is on a technical level? The existing reference in 1194.24(a) states "(Certain hardware "..shall be equipped with caption decoder circuitry which appropriately receives, decodes, and displays closed captions from broadcast, cable, videotape, and DVD signals."
- Do we really need the restriction on certain types of hardware? Is it "broadcast" if I receive the signal via my computer, without using a "television tuner"?
1194.24(c) states "all training and information video and multimedia productions" which I believe generically covers all formats received via E&IT (i.e., phone videos, flash videos, mpeg videos). When speech or audio is needed, the requirement is for open or closed captioning. When visuals are required for comprehension, audio description is required.
- Is it acceptable to provide open captioning of multimedia (e.g., mpeg videos, flash videos) if there isn't enough resolution for the captioning to be viewed? What is the acceptable standards for size and resolution in a multimedia setting?
- As far as I can tell the existing "standards" for captioning are a part of the technical standards for NTSC, PAL, or digital television in the EIA-708 format.
- Do we gain a benefit, that is do we add to the clarity of the standards and increase accessibility by making reference to something like EIA-708 formats? In implementing the standards, how do we know vendors are in compliance with Section 508 and with the industry technical standards?
The Wikipedia entries Closed Captioning (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closed_captioning), Subtitles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subtitles), and SAP (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_audio_program). NCAM's Implementing DTV Closed Captions and Video Description (http://ncam.wgbh.org/dtv/overview/nab2000paper.html) may also be of interest to the reader.
I'm concerned because of the number of times I've seen _subtitled_ videos used for training purposes when _captioning_ was specifically required. I'm also concerned because it is difficult to get a technical understanding for standards in captioning of multimedia content.
Norman B. Robinson
Section 508 Coordinator
IT Governance, US Postal Service
Â§ 1194.24 Video and multimedia products.
(a) All analog television displays 13 inches and larger, and computer equipment that includes analog television receiver or display circuitry, shall be equipped with caption decoder circuitry which appropriately receives, decodes, and displays closed captions from broadcast, cable, videotape, and DVD signals. As soon as practicable, but not later than July 1, 2002, widescreen digital television (DTV) displays measuring at least 7.8 inches vertically, DTV sets with conventional displays measuring at least 13 inches vertically, and stand-alone DTV tuners, whether or not they are marketed with display screens, and computer equipment that includes DTV receiver or display circuitry, shall be equipped with caption decoder circuitry which appropriately receives, decodes, and displays closed captions from broadcast, cable, videotape, and DVD signals.
(b) Television tuners, including tuner cards for use in computers, shall be equipped with secondary audio program playback circuitry.
(c) All training and informational video and multimedia productions which support the agency's mission, regardless of format, that contain speech or other audio information necessary for the comprehension of the content, shall be open or closed captioned.
(d) All training and informational video and multimedia productions which support the agency's mission, regardless of format, that contain visual information necessary for the comprehension of the content, shall be audio described.
(e) Display or presentation of alternate text presentation or audio descriptions shall be user-selectable unless permanent.
From: = EMAIL ADDRESS REMOVED = [mailto: = EMAIL ADDRESS REMOVED = ] On Behalf Of geoff freed
Sent: Thursday, March 15, 2007 1:23 PM
To: TEITAC Audio/Video Subcommittee
Subject: Re: [teitac-video] [teitac-subparta] teitac-videoCaptioning Definition
Or a bit more broadly defined:
Captions are text displayed on screen in the same language as the
audio, and are synchronized with the multimedia. They represent not
but also non-speech elements such as sound effects or speaker
identification. In some countries, captions are known as subtitles.
On Mar 15, 2007, at 12:33 PM, Andrew Kirkpatrick wrote:
> I've added a couple of comments already, but want to add that there is
> something odd about the "presented on the screen in an audio format"
> Captions are synchronized text equivalents for audio information.
> Captions are similar to subtitles in that they convey the content of
> spoken dialogue, but also include text for non-spoken information such
> as important sound effects, music, laughter, and speaker
> and location. In some countries captions are called subtitles.
>> Captions are synchronized text display(s) of information that
>> is presented on the screen in an audio format. Captions
>> appear as written representation of onscreen audio narration
>> or spoken dialogue, Captions are similar to subtitles, but
>> also convey non-dialogue auditory information that is
>> important to the video, such as on- and off-screen sound
>> effects, music, and laughter that are synchronized with the
>> images on the screen."
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