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Re: Whither /TOC and /TOCI in PDF 2.0? PDF accessibility question.


From: Rick Davies
Date: May 16, 2019 11:21AM

Thank you, Karen, Bevi and Duff for your very gracious replies. Hugely appreciated.

My question was from the view point of a software developer trying to do the right
thing in the context of producing PDF/UA compliant, and optimally accessible tagged
PDF output, automagically. Our objective is to remove the need for post-production
PDF remediation. It seems to take so much user-time. Passing compliance tests is
not so difficult. The big challenge we have is getting it right in a way that will
make users happy.

I was wondering *why* the /TOC and TOCI standard structure elements were 'undefined'
in PDF 2.0. (Just like in a crossword puzzle--each word found helps to find other

I have to go back to school on this, reading and reading over and over, fortified by your kind

Thanks again,


Rick Davies, Technical Sales Manager
Datazone Ltd, Tel: +353 64 66 289 64
Palm Gate, Greenane, Killarney, Fax: +353 64 66 289 65
Co. Kerry, Ireland www.miramo.com

On 5/14/2019 7:33 PM, Karlen Communications wrote:
> My understanding is that you can still use the "old" Tag Set like TOC and
> TOCI but it is going to be mapped to something else like a paragraph, list
> or just a link. There will be no clear distinction in the Tags as to whether
> you are in a TOC or a paragraph or generic list.
> As far as I know, the use of PDF 1.7 is not specifically identified in PDF -
> 2 but I may be wrong. I keep hearing that you can use both PDF 1.7 Tags and
> PDF - 2 Tags or either and still be conforming.
> Cheers, Karen
> -----Original Message-----
> From: WebAIM-Forum < <EMAIL REMOVED> > On Behalf Of Rick
> Davies
> Sent: Tuesday, May 14, 2019 1:38 PM
> To: WebAIM Discussion List < <EMAIL REMOVED> >
> Subject: [WebAIM] [WebAim] Whither /TOC and /TOCI in PDF 2.0? PDF
> accessibility question.
> Hello Everyone,
> This is a question about accessibility and the PDF 2.0 standard.
> The PDF 2.0 standard, ISO 32000-2:2017(E), says that /TOC and /TOCI, and
> several other standard structure elements, are no longer 'defined'. (Annex
> M, page 958.)
> OTOH there are many US Goverment agency documents containing accessibility
> guidelines saying, e.g., entries in tables of contents *must* be tagged
> /TOCI.
> (Table of contents entries in the PDF version of ISO 32000-2:2017(E) are
> tagged /TOCI. That's presumably because it's a PDF 1.7 document.)
> The complete list of previously-defined standard structure elements,
> *undefined* by PDF 2.0, is: Sect, Art, BlockQuote, TOC, TOCI, Index,
> NonStruct, Private, Quote, Note, Reference, BibEntry, Code.
> Does anyone know why these standard structure elements were 'undefined' in
> PDF 2.0?
> What is the significance of their removal/undefining/defenestration in PDF
> 2.0?
> And what should be used instead?
> If the PDF version of ISO 32000-2:2017(E) PDF 2.0 standard were to be in
> Version 2.0 PDF instead of version 1.7 PDF, would the table the table of
> contents entries still be tagged /TOCI, or tagged some other way?
> The answers must be obvious, but I can't find 'em. If anyone has time to
> explain this, it would be wonderful, especially if the explanation could be
> made at a level suitable for someone who finds understanding the various ISO
> PDF standards woefully difficult.
> Or maybe PDF 2.0 is ignoreable for, say, the next ten years in terms of
> accessibility, & most other things??
> Thanks very much ...
> Rick
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