WebAIM - Web Accessibility In Mind

E-mail List Archives

Thread: Students with disabilities taking online courses


Number of posts in this thread: 4 (In chronological order)

From: Poore-Pariseau, Cindy
Date: Mon, Apr 20 2009 2:30PM
Subject: Students with disabilities taking online courses
No previous message | Next message →


I am desperately searching for a resource that has figures (numbers or percentages) of students with disabilities enrolled in online learning courses in the US. Please let me know if you can suggest a resource.

Thank you,

Cindy Poore-Pariseau

From: El Aiady, Elizabeth
Date: Mon, Apr 20 2009 2:35PM
Subject: Re: Students with disabilities taking online courses
← Previous message | Next message →

Try this site:

Also, if you google "number of students with disabilities taking online
courses in US" you will get a long list of sites.

Elizabeth El Aiady
DARS CPI, Technical Writer
4800 N. Lamar Blvd.
Austin, TX 78756
(512) 424-4347

Help Text for screenreaders: The image is the DARS slogan E 3 that
stands for Excellent Service, Every Customer, Every Time.

-----Original Message-----
[mailto: = EMAIL ADDRESS REMOVED = ] On Behalf Of
Poore-Pariseau, Cindy
Sent: Monday, April 20, 2009 3:27 PM
To: WebAIM Discussion List
Subject: [WebAIM] Students with disabilities taking online courses


I am desperately searching for a resource that has figures (numbers or
percentages) of students with disabilities enrolled in online learning
courses in the US. Please let me know if you can suggest a resource.

Thank you,

Cindy Poore-Pariseau

From: Poore-Pariseau, Cindy
Date: Mon, Apr 20 2009 4:45PM
Subject: Re: Students with disabilities taking online courses
← Previous message | Next message →

I apologize, I should have specified that I am looking for information about college students.

From: Rachael A Zubal-Ruggieri
Date: Tue, Apr 21 2009 11:05AM
Subject: Re: Students with disabilities taking online courses
← Previous message | No next message

I am in the process of working on an expansive bibliography concerning several issues related to inclusive post secondary education. I'm pasting below several resources related to online learning and other technology issues. I don’t know if any of this will give you statistics but it may give you avenues to look in other places for this information. Some of it is formatted and some is not. It is mostly in order alphabetically by author (with only a few exceptions). It is lengthy, sorry!


Customers with disabilities: the academic library response
Chris Pinder. Library Review. Bradford: 2005. Vol. 54, Iss. 8; pg. 464, 8 pgs

Abstract (Summary)
The article surveys the general academic library response within the UK to disability legislation and the growing numbers of students declaring disabilities entering higher education. Following a brief review of the provisions of legislation, particularly the Spe,"Integrated Manufacturing Systems" }Integrated_Manufacturing_Systemscial Educational Needs And Disability Act of 2001, and the response of funding and other bodies, the article addresses specific regional - that is, collaborative - and individual institutional initiatives. Responses from libraries are found to be very positive and offer a service-level benchmark to libraries in other sectors or elsewhere. This is a geographically focussed paper, looking at the UK and in particular the Scottish position, and other countries may present different findings. An account of the implementation of a variety of initiatives aimed at disabled users, with much relevance to practitioner concerns. The paper gives a valuable overview of the progress made in academic libraries to date on disability issues in Scotland, and in the UK, and shows that both the legislation combined with the inherent customer-service values of the library profession have helped raise the standard of library performance in this regard.

Badge, J. L., Dawson, E., Cann, A. J., & Scott, J. (2008, May). Assessing the accessibility of online learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45(2), 103-113.

A wide range of tools is now available to enable teaching practitioners to create web-based educational materials from PowerPoint presentations, adding a variety of different digital media, such as audio and animation. The pilot study described in this paper compared three different systems for producing multimedia presentations from existing PowerPoint files. The resulting resources were tested by a group of disabled students and a group of non-disabled students. Our findings show that there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in relation to their interaction with the resources. In particular, the students with disabilities were significantly more active in using the available controls to customise the running of the presentations. The data suggest that future work on why students with accessibility issues made different uses of these resources could encourage practitioners' deployment of multimedia resources for the benefit of all learners.

Burgstahler, S., & Lamb, P. (Eds.). (2003, Fall). Empowering Students with Disabilities as They Transition to College and Careers [Special issue]. Journal of Special Education Technology, 18(4). Available: http://jset.unlv.edu/18.4/issuemenu.html

This issue of JSET is devoted to papers presented at the Technology Capacity Building Institute, Empowering Students with Disabilities as They Transition to College and Careers, which was held in Seattle on April 7 and 8, 2003. The event was sponsored by the National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET), the National Center for the Study of Postsecondary Educational Supports (NCSPES), and Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking and Technology (DO-IT). The purpose of the Institute was to discuss how stakeholders, students with disabilities and their families, K-12 educators, college disabilities support staff, vocational rehabilitation counselors, local, state, and federal policy makers, textbook and technology publishers, and employers can assure that:
• all individuals with disabilities have access to technology that promotes positive academic and career outcomes.
• all people with disabilities use technology in ways that contribute to positive postsecondary academic and career outcomes and self-determined lives.
• there is a seamless transition of availability of technology for all people with disabilities as they move from K-12 to postsecondary to career environments.

Articles include:
• The Role Of Technology In Preparing Youth With Disabilities For Postsecondary Education And Employment—Sheryl Burgstahler
• The Interdependent Roles of All Players in Making Technology Accessible—Terry Thompson
• Findings from the Study of Transition, Technology and Postsecondary Supports for Youth with Disabilities: Implications for Secondary School Educators—Robert A. Stodden, Megan A. Conway, Kelly B.T. Chang
• Assistive Technology, Universal Design, Universal Design for Learning: Improved Opportunities—Chuck Hitchcock, Skip Stahl
• The Role of the Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor in Procuring Technology to Facilitate Success in Postsecondary Education for Youth with Disabilities—Peg Lamb
• Employer Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Youth in Transition—Richard G. Luecking

Christ, T. (2008). Technology support services in postsecondary education: A mixed methods study. Technology and Disability, 20(1), 25-35.

Technology has a profound effect upon the lives of students with disabilities. This mixed methods longitudinal analysis of technology supports began with exploratory factor analysis of repeatedly administered nationally represented surveys of disability support providers. This was followed by a qualitative cross case analysis of three purposefully selected postsecondary institutions and longitudinal study of one of the sites across four levels (coordinator, supervisors, support staff, and students) that underwent a 40% budget reduction. Qualitative thematic coding using grounded theoretical procedures were used with 40 interviews to confirm cross-validate and corroborate findings. This repeated sorting, coding and comparisons of themes created categories to more readily distinguish how technology is viewed and used in postsecondary education. Results from all three phases clearly indicate that assistive technology was highly valued and supported by the participants in the study. The survey revealed that providing assistive technology was a top priority, the cross case analysis indicated that appropriate technological services and training reduced student dependency, and the longitudinal analysis across four levels revealed the coordinators priority to improve technology by updating hardware and software, training and reconfiguring staff, and collaborating with departments across campus continued to improve student success despite reduced funding and staff.

Crow, K. (2008, January). Four types of disabilities: Their impact on online learning. TechTrends, 52(1), 51-55.

The writer provides guidance for designers and developers of online learning materials on some of the issues and challenges that confront online learners who have disabilities. He offers an overview of four major disability categories--visual impairments, hearing impairments, motor impairments, and cognitive impairments. Furthermore, he presents a number of common-sense recommendations for making online learning materials more accessible to learners who have disabilities.

Edmonds, C. D. (2004, March). Providing access to students with disabilities in online distance education: Legal and technical concerns for higher education. American Journal of Distance Education, 18(1), 51-62.

Students with disabilities who enroll in online courses continue to experience barriers to participation. Although no single U.S. law or court decision requires educators to provide online courses in a format that is accessible to all students, a patchwork of federal and state laws apply to online education in various ways.

Erickson, W., Trerise, S., Lee, C., Van Looy, S. & Bruyere, S. (2008, February). Community college websites and barriers to access [Impact Brief #27]. Ithaca, NY: School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/briefs/42.

Community colleges, on average, serve 335 students with disabilities, although that number climbs to 5,000 at the largest college surveyed for this project. Nearly all community colleges that participated in the survey rely on the web for a variety of student services, but only half have instituted requirements regarding web accessibility for individuals with disabilities. Actual evaluations of accessibility and ease of use revealed that none of the websites analyzed complied with all federal standards on accessibility, and many web pages encompassed usability obstacles (e.g., unfamiliar terminology, unintuitive navigation schemes, and hard-to-read design elements) that affected disabled and non-disabled individuals alike.

Erickson, W., Trerise, S., VanLooy, S., Lee, C., & Bruyére, S. (2009, May). Web accessibility policies and practices at American community colleges. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 33(5), 405-416.

Community colleges are increasingly using the Internet for admissions and financial aid applications. The use of online processes has serious implications for students with disabilities, such as visual and learning problems, who may encounter difficulties with the Web sites if they are not designed in an accessible and usable way. A survey of student services leaders at community colleges across the country was conducted to evaluate the use of the Web for a variety of student processes. Also investigated was the awareness of issues related to Web accessibility for students with disabilities. Nearly 700 colleges responded, representing a 79% response rate. While 90% offered online access to course catalogs, class schedules, and online courses, only half said that their school had requirements for accessible Web content. These results indicate that significantly more work needs to be done to inform community college administrators and Web developers about these issues.

Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology
Volume 29(2) Spring / printemps 2003
Accessible Computer Technologies for Students With Disabilities in Canadian Higher Education

Catherine S. Fichten
Jennison V. Asuncion
Chantal Robillard
Myrtis E. Fossey
Maria Barile
Two studies explored how well English and French speaking colleges and universities in Canada address availability and access to new computer and information technologies for individuals with disabilities. In Study 1, 156 professionals who provide disability-related supports on campus responded to structured interview questions. In Study 2, 40 professionals who work in Quebec's Francophone junior/community college system (CEGEP) participated. Results showed that most institutions had specialized adaptive computer equipment, though colleges were less likely than universities, and loan programs providing adaptive computer equipment were seen as very effective. Respondents believed they were not very knowledgeable about adaptive computer technologies and those from Francophone institutions scored lower than from Anglophone institutions. The needs of students were seen as moderately well met, with Francophone respondents more favorable than Anglophone. Respondents from Anglophone universities expressed different needs than those from Anglophone colleges or Francophone institutions. Disability service providers wished students were better equipped and prepared for the postsecondary experience, computer based teaching materials used by professors were more accessible, and more extensive support services for adaptive hardware and software available. We provide recommendations based on universal design principles that are targeted at those involved in technology integration in postsecondary education.

Foley, A. R. (2007). Distancing education: Understandings of disability and the provision of access to content. International Journal of Instructional Media, 34(1), 17-27.

The rapid growth of the Internet has changed the ways people communicate, teach, and learn, while at the same time increasing the isolation of those who do not have access to these technologies. This paper outlines common standards intended to ensure that web content is accessible to all users and places those standards in the context of contemporary conversations regarding access to web content. An entry point for this discussion is the politics and practice of web accessibility within higher education; excerpts from a technology discussion LISTSERV are analyzed. Within in this analysis a number of issues are considered including the legal, rhetorical, and technical strategies deployed to avoid development of broadly accessible web materials, the socially constructed nature of such terms as "disabled" and "accessible," the real effects of inaccessibility to students utilizing educational technologies, and implications for educators and policy makers.

Fossey, M.E., Asuncion, J.V., Fichten, C.S., Robillard, C., Barile, M., Amsel, R., Prezant, F., & Morabito, S. (2005). Development and validation of the Accessibility Of Campus Computing For Students With Disabilities Scale (ACCSDS). Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 18(1), 23-33.


Development and Validation of the Accessibility of Campus Computing for Students With Disabilities Scale: Service Providers’ Perspective

Myrtis E. Fossey
Jennison V. Asuncion
Catherine Fichten
Chantal Robillard
Maria Barile
Rhonda Amsel
Fran Prezant
Stephen Morabito

Dawson College, Concordia University, McGill University, Université de Montréal, National Center for Disability Services


Responses by 156 Canadian college and university professionals who provide disability-related services to students were used to construct, develop, and validate the Accessibility of Campus Computing for Students With Disabilities Scale (ACCSDS): Service Provider Version. This is a 19-item, self-administered tool that evaluates institutional computing accessibility for students with disabilities from the perspective of disability service providers. The measure contains 4 empirically derived subscales: Access to Adaptive Computers, Infrastructure and Collaboration, Academic Inclusion, and Adaptive Technology Competence. Results indicate that these 4 factors account for 54% of the variability in total scores. The data also show good internal consistency for the subscales and the full scale. Data concerning validity show strong relationships between scores and a key criterion variable. The ACCSDS can be used to evaluate disability service providers’ views about an institution’s technology accessibility, to provide empirical data to influence information and instructional technology policy, and to pinpoint areas of strength as well as areas needing improvement.

Grabinger, R. S., Aplin, C., & Ponnappa-Brenner, G. (2008, January). Supporting learners with cognitive impairments in online environments. TechTrends, 52(1), 63-69.

The writers explore how learners with cognitive impairments can be supported in online environments. After highlighting the problem of mental illness, psychiatric disabilities, and cognitive impairments in postsecondary education, they set out a construct to guide the development of more flexible teaching methodologies within universal design for learning and explore the uses of new Web 2.0 applications for teaching and learning.

Kinash, S., Crichton, S., & Kim-Rupnow, W. S. (2004, March). A review of 2000-2003 literature at the intersection of online learning and disability. American Journal of Distance Education, 18(1), 5-19.

Literature published between 2000 and 2003 at the intersection between online learning and disability can be classified into didactic, descriptive, research, and opinion pieces. In this article, two research pieces surveying the literature are reviewed. The resounding theme throughout the literature is that improving accessibility of online learning for students with disabilities will promote best practices in online learning for all students.

Kim-Rupnow, W. S., & Burgstahler, S. (2004, Spring). Perceptions of students with disabilities regarding the value of technology-based support activities on postsecondary education and employment. Journal of Special Education Technology, 19(2), 43-56.

Transitioning from high school to employment or postsecondary education is a critical juncture in any person's life. For students with disabilities, the complexities associated with such pivotal decisions are compounded, increasing the need for transition preparation and ongoing support to develop self-determination, social, academic, and career skills. Although many programs have offered services to students during transition periods, there is little empirical research on the long-term impact of specific support activities, including those that employ computers and the Internet. This article reports the results of a retrospective survey of participants in a technology-based exemplary transition program for college-bound youth. It reports how participants perceive the impact of key components, including technology-enriched summer study and year-round computer and Internet activities, on their self-determination, social, college, and career skills. Recommendations for applications to transition programs as well as future research are provided.

Journal of Computer Assisted Learning
Volume 23 Issue 3, Pages 207 – 219
(June 2007)

Computer-assisted teaching and assessment of disabled students in higher education: the interface between academic standards and disability rights
O. Konur
Mugla University, Mugla, Turkey
Correspondence to Ozcan Konur, Mugla University Rectorate, 48000, Kotekli, Mugla, Turkey. Email: = EMAIL ADDRESS REMOVED =
Copyright © 2007 The Author. Journal compilation © 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
academic standards • computer-assisted teaching and assessment • disability adjustments • disability rights • disabled students • higher education
Abstract Computer-assisted teaching and assessment has become a regular feature across many areas of the curriculum in higher education courses around the world in recent years. This development has resulted in the 'digital divide' between disabled students and their nondisabled peers regarding their participation in computer-assisted courses. However, there has been a long-standing practice to ensure that disabled students could participate in these courses with a set of disability adjustments that are in line with their learning modalities under the headings of presentation format, response format, timing, and setting adjustments. Additionally, there has been a set of supporting antidiscriminatory disability laws around the world to avoid such divide between disabled students and their nondisabled peers. However, following a successful pre cedent in Davis v. Southeastern Community College (1979), the opponents of disability rights have consistently argued that making disability adjustments for disabled students to participate in computer-assisted courses would undermine academic and professional standards and these laws have resulted in a 'culture of fear' among the staff. This paper challenges such myths and argues, based on a systematic review of four major antidiscriminatory laws, that universities have full academic freedom to set the academic standards of their computer-assisted courses despite the introduction of such laws and that there has been no grounds for the perceived culture of fear about the consequences of the participation of disabled students in computer-assisted courses.

Ling, B., Colin, A., Nicholl, J. R., Moodley, L., & Roberts, D. (2007, April-June). Managing disability information flow in an academic institutional environment. International Journal on E-Learning, 6(2), 213-221.

Disabled students require full access to the higher education curriculum without suffering from discrimination due to their disability. This is a simple ethic of civilised societies, but is also increasingly becoming a legal imperative. In a relatively small number of cases access may mean accommodating manifest physical impairments such as those that can occur with sight, hearing, and mobility. In the majority of cases however a disability is likely to be far less obvious, such as dyslexia, mental health, or diabetes, but still necessitates special action from those delivering the curriculum.

Martinez-Marrero, I., & Estrada-Hernandez, N. (2008, January). Assistive technology: An instructional tool to assist college students with written language disabilities. TechTrends, 52(1), 56-62.

During the academic year 1999-2000, nine percent of all undergraduate students enrolled in post-secondary institutions reported having disabilities, and of those, 11% were learning disabilities or attention deficit disorder. Although literature is accumulating about the integration and use of assistive technologies (AT) for students with disabilities in educational settings, greater emphasis has been placed on K-12 (Male, 2003; Ulman, 2005) than post-secondary education.

Michaels, C. A., Pollock Prezant, F., Morabito, S. M., & Jackson, K. (2002, Winter). Assistive and instructional technology for college students with disabilities: A national snapshot of postsecondary service providers. Journal of Special Education Technology, 17(1), 5-14.

Moshinsky, A., & Kazin, C. (2005, January). Constructing a computerized adaptive test for university applicants with disabilities. Applied Measurement in Education, 18(4), 381-405.

In recent years, there has been a large increase in the number of university applicants requesting special accommodations for university entrance exams. The Israeli National Institute for Testing and Evaluation (NITE) administers a Psychometric Entrance Test (comparable to the Scholastic Assessment Test in the United States) to assist universities in Israel in selecting undergraduates. Because universities in Israel do not permit flagging of candidates receiving special testing accommodations, such scores are treated as identical to scores attained under regular testing conditions. The increase in the number of students receiving testing accommodations and the prohibition of flagging have brought into focus certain psychometric issues pertaining to the fairness of testing students with disabilities and the comparability of special and standard testing conditions. To address these issues, NITE has developed a computerized adaptive psychometric test for administration to examinees with disabilities. This article discusses the process of developing the computerized test and ensuring its comparability to the paper-and-pencil test. This article also presents data on the operational computerized test.

Mull, C. A., & Sitlington, P. L. (2003). The role of technology in the transition to postsecondary education of students with learning disabilities: A review of the literature. The Journal of Special Education, 37(1), 26-32.

This article summarizes findings regarding the use of technology in helping students with learning disabilities succeed in postsecondary education settings. The primary purposes of this article are to (a) identify the specific technology recommendations found in the literature, (b) identify issues related to using these recommendations in the transition to postsecondary education, and (c) provide recommendations for planning for the transition to postsecondary education.

Rowland, C. (2000, October 31). Accessibility of the internet in postsecondary education: Meeting the challenge. Paper presented at Universal Web Accessibility Symposium, WebNet World Conference on The WWW and Internet, San Antonio Texas. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from http://www.webaim.org/articles/meetchallenge/.

“The winds of change have blown over postsecondary education. As Internet technologies transform our educational experiences, so these technologies create a wide chasm. There is a very real divide between students who do and do not have access to the Internet in education today. As our nation grapples with issues of physical access to hardware, software, the web, and a National Information Infrastructure, decision-makers must be mindful of those with different issues of access. These individuals are those with disabilities and their issues of access are related to the environment of the Internet today.”

Seale, J. (2006). Disability, technology and e-learning: Challenging conceptions. ALT-J, 14(1), 1-8.

“In considering the role that technology and e-learning can play in helping students access higher education and an effective learning experience, a large amount of the current research and practice literature focuses almost exclusively on accessibility legislation, guidelines and standards, and the rules contained within them…. One of the major problems of such an approach is that it has drawn higher education practitioners into thinking that their objective is to comply with rules. I argue that it is not….The objective should be to address the needs of students. The danger of only focusing on rules is that it can constrain thinking and therefore practice. We need to expand our thinking beyond that of how to comply with rules, towards how to meet the needs of students with disabilities, within the local contexts that students and practitioners are working.” (p. 1)

Parker, D. R., & Banerjee, M. (2007). Leveling the digital playing field: Assessing the learning technology needs of college-bound students with LD and/or ADHD. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 33(1), 5-14.

As increasing numbers of students with learning disabilities (LD) or attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) transition to postsecondary education, they encounter a heightened need for proficiency with a wide range of learning technologies. Whereas the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA) requires consideration of a student's assistive technology training needs in high school, the Americans With Disabilities Act does not require any evaluation or training services for postsecondary students with disabilities. In an era of measurable outcomes, it is critical for secondary school personnel to consider effective assessments and relevant interventions when college-bound students with cognitive disabilities lack proficiency with these technologies. Survey research at a highly competitive public university found significant differences between the technology needs, preferences, and fluency of undergraduates with and without disabilities. This article presents findings from that study as well as implications for teachers and evaluators who assist students with LD and ADHD in their transition planning for postsecondary education.

Raskind, M. H., & Higgins, E. L. (1998, January/February). Assistive technology for postsecondary students with learning disabilities: An overview. In B. R. Bryant (Ed.), Assistive Technology [Special Issue]. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31(1), 27-40.

The number of postsecondary students with learning disabilities has increased dramatically over the last several years. This increase, coupled with federal legislation mandating "academic adjustments" for students with disabilities, has prompted the development of postsecondary learning disability support service programs. One support service that has begun to attract considerable attention is assistive technology. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assistive technology as it relates to postsecondary students with learning disabilities by (a) briefly tracing the development of assistive technology service for postsecondary students with learning disabilities; (b) identifying basic models of assistive technology service delivery and specific services; (c) providing a description of specific assistive technologies; (d) reviewing research on the effectiveness of assistive technology with postsecondary students with learning disabilities, with a focus on the authors' 3-year federally funded study; and (e) concluding with a summary and recommendations.

Sarnoff, S. (2001). Ensuring that course websites are ADA compliant. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 18(3), 189-201.

This paper explores how social work course websites can meet recommendations for ADA compliance. It addresses the current and expected rules for compliance, the types of disabilities that require accommodations and the accommodations that each requires. It discusses the software and hardware features and options available to students with disabilities. It also discusses software available to web authors to create accessible websites and identify noncompliant features. Following these guidelines will enable students with disabilities to fully benefit from online courses-and will offer benefits to users who do not have disabilities, as well.

Seale, J. (Ed.). (2006). E-learning and disability in higher education: Accessibility research and practice. New York: Routledge.

Most practitioners know that they should make e-learning accessible to students with disabilities, yet it is not always clear exactly how this should be done. E-Learning and Disability in Higher Education evaluates current practice and provision and explores the tools, methods and approaches available for improving accessible practice.

Examining the social, educational and political background behind making e-learning accessible in higher and further education, this book considers the role of and provides advice for, the key stake-holders involved in e-learning provision: lecturers, learning technologists, student support services, staff developers and senior managers.

Key topics covered include:
 the opportunities that e-learning can offer students with disabilities
 the impact of accessibility legislation, guidelines and standards on current e-learning practices
 the reliability and validity of accessibility related evaluation and repair tools
 practical guidelines for 'best practice' in providing accessible e-learning experiences.

Sullivan, A. G. (2005, Spring). Notes from the field: Building campus capacity to achieve & maintain electronic accessibility. The Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 27(3) 30-34. Retrieved January 15, 2009 from http://specialpopulations.org/Chapters%20Vol%2027-3/JVSNE_Vol27-3_NotesfromField.pdf

“A university or college campus’ electronic accessibility policy should be comprehensive, addressing all parts of Section 508—the accessibility of a campus’ Information Technology (i.e. software and hardware) as well as its campus Web sites and digital document collections.

The Web Accessibility for All Project makes four specific recommendations that will strengthen and deepen campus/institutional policy documents:
 Policies should include the recommendation that each unit’s/department’s strategic plan include a specific element that addresses accessibility— including current status and plans for improvement.
 Policies should include as members of key decision making/policy groups one or more students and/or staff with disabilities.
 Policies should make explicit reference to making libraries’ electronic documents and other digital collections, such as those in museums, accessible.
 Policies should include reference to accessibility determination procedures as part of the university’s hardware/software acquisition process.” (p. 30)

Gray, J., Harrison, G., Sheridan-Ross, J., & Gorra, A. (2008). Using a computer aided test to raise awareness of disability issues amongst university teaching staff. In K. Miesenberger J. Klaus, W. Zagler, & A.Karshmer (Eds.), Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 11th International Conference, ICCHP 2008, Linz, Austria, July 9-11, 2008 Proceedings [Lecture Notes in Computer Science] (pp. 198-206). Heidelberg: Springer Germany.

A computer-based test has been created as a training tool to raise awareness among university academic staff of some common experiences faced by people with visual, mobility, hearing and cognitive difficulties when using a computer. This test simulates experiences of disabled students who use computers and take computer-based tests, and provides advice and guidance to university teaching staff on how they may best cater for the needs of such students. The paper discusses the reasons for creating such a tool in such a format, its structure and content, and the outcome of its presentation to several groups of participants. Feedback from students with disabilities is to be used in the future development of the test.