"Skip Navigation" Links
The main content is not usually the first thing on a web page. Keyboard and screen reader users generally must navigate a long list of navigation links, sub-lists of links, corporate icons, site searches, and other elements before ever arriving at the main content. This is particularly difficult for users with some forms of motor disabilities.
Without some sort of system for bypassing the long list of links, some users are at a huge disadvantage. Consider users with no arm movement, who use computers by tapping their heads on a switch or that use a stick in their mouth to press keyboard keys. Requiring users to perform any action perhaps 100s of times before reaching the main content is simply unacceptable.
Of course, sighted people who use their mouse do not have any trouble with pages such as this. They can almost immediately scan over the page and identify where the main content is. In effect, sighted users have a built-in "skip navigation" mechanism: their eyes. They can also bypass the many links before the main content and click directly on the link they want with the mouse. The "skip navigation" idea was invented to give screen reader and keyboard users the same capability of going directly to the main content that sighted mouse users take for granted.
Creating "Skip Navigation" Links
The idea is simple enough: provide a link at the top of the page which jumps the user down to an anchor or target at the beginning of the main content. For the most part, it really is this easy, though there is more than one way to accomplish the goal. Some techniques are better than others. The techniques discussed here are:
- Providing visible links at the top of the page
- Providing visible links elsewhere on the page
- Making the link invisible
- Making the link invisible until it receives keyboard focus
Visible links at the top of the page
The easiest method of creating a "skip navigation" link is to put it at the top of the page in regular text. Put the corresponding anchor (link destination) at the beginning of the main content.
The horizontal location of the link doesn't matter much. The link can be on the left side, the middle, the right, or in some location in between. The key is to make sure the link is one of the first items that screen readers hear and that keyboard users tab to. Otherwise, users may not realize there is a "skip navigation" link there at all, and may waste time trying to muddle through the extraneous links. Screen reader users especially may get impatient if they don't hear the "skip navigation" link very early in the page.
To be optimally usable, the link must also be visually apparent. A very small or hidden link does not benefit the audience that most needs "skip" links - sighted keyboard users.
The verdict: This method works and is highly accessible. A disadvantage of this approach is that the link may be intrusive to visual design - it must be visible and at the very beginning of the page. Also, the link is presented to all users, even sighted mouse users who may not use it, or that could potentially be confused by it.
The link is the first item in the page. The anchor or target for the link (where the link will jump the user to) is placed at the beginning of the main content.
<a href="#maincontent">Skip to main content</a>
<p>This is the first paragraph</p>
The target is identified by its
id attribute value matching the
href value (minus the "#") of the "skip" link.
Alternatively, you can use a named anchor to identify the target for the link, though named anchors are no longer conforming in HTML5.
<h1><a name="maincontent" id="maincontent"></a> Heading</h1>
<p>This is the first paragraph</p>
Many developers worry about the aesthetic impact of "skip navigation" links. They may think these links don't look particularly attractive, they "ruin" the layout, or that they get in the way of artistic expression. It's easy to argue that the links may be confusing for users that do not need them. While a visible "skip" link declares a type of distinct commitment to accessibility, to address these concerns, the link can be visually hidden.
There are a few methods for doing this, but it's vital that the link still be usable by all keyboard users, particularly sighted keyboard users. This means that the link should be hidden visually by default, but that it should become visible when it receives keyboard focus. Some techniques, such as hiding the content permanently with CSS, making the link the same color as the background, sizing the link to 0 pixels, or placing it on a one pixel transparent image do not meet these important requirements.
Probably the most accessible method for visually hiding skip links is to hide them off screen, then cause them to be positioned on screen when they receive keyboard focus.
Review the article on Invisible Content Just for Screen Reader Users for details on using CSS to hide "skip" links off-screen.
One potential issue with this approach is that if the user navigates very quickly using the Tab key, the link may be visible on the page for only a fraction of a second and may be overlooked. This can be partially addressed by ensuring that the "skip" link is visually distinctive at the top of the page. Additionally, one could use scripting of (optimally) CSS3 transitions to cause the link to animate so it remains visible on screen for a period of time.
You can see an example of a hidden skip link that becomes visible on keyboard focus, that also has CSS3 animation to make it visually distinctive and always visible on screen momentarily on this very page. Simply navigate through the links at the beginning of this page using the Tab key and watch for the "skip" link at the top left screen.
The verdict: This method works well for nearly all users. Sighted mouse users (who do not benefit from the link) do not see it, screen reader users will hear the link, and sighted keyboard users will see the link when they navigate to it.
Which wording is best?
There is more than one "best" way to word the link. Here are some fairly common examples:
- Skip navigation
- Skip main navigation
- Skip navigation links
- Skip to main content
- Skip to content
None of these is inherently better than the others. In general, we prefer "Skip to main content" as it explains where they are navigating to versus what they are navigating past. Minor variations on these are probably acceptable, such as "skip top navigation." Don't get too creative here, or else users may not realize what the purpose of the link is.
focus()) to the target element.
Multiple "Skip" Links
What if a page has multiple sections and/or multiple layers of navigational links? Should developers provide a "skip navigation" to each of these sections or over each layer or navigational links? In most cases, this is not necessary. Remember, the purpose of "skip navigation" links is to reduce the clutter of lists of links. Adding more links increases link-clutter.
A popular U.S. government site recently had a total of nine different "skip navigation" links (the links are hidden using CSS):
- Skip to content
- Skip to government search
- Skip to bottom nav
- Skip to top nav bar-right aligned
- Skip to By organization
- Skip to contact your government
- Skip to reference center
- Skip to information by topic
- Skip to citizens: get it done online!
This brings of the question of whether they need a "Skip the skip links" link! By providing a proper document outline, perhaps using HTML5 section elements and ARIA landmarks, and simplifying page structure and navigation, typically one or two "skip" links is sufficient.
Skip links or other in-page links can also be used to allow users to jump to or jump over page content. For example, the Table of Contents at the top of this page includes in-page links to facilitate navigation to page areas. A "skip" link could also be used to allow the user to quickly bypass confusing or potentially inaccessible content, such as ASCII art, complex tables, etc.
Alternatives to "Skip Navigation" Links
The truth is that "skip navigation" links are a rather clumsy and obtrusive solution to a real world problem. They work. They're useful, but they're a bit of a hack. They will continue to be useful until a more standardized method of designating the difference between navigation and main content evolves and is fully supported. With ARIA landmarks and the HTML5
<main> element, this is closer to becoming a reality. Unfortunately, no browsers yet fully support keyboard navigation via these elements. Despite these limitations, there are other ways one can facilitate page navigation in addition to "skip" links.
Navigating by headings
The most useful alternative method is to create documents with proper headings so that users can skip from heading to heading. Most screen readers allow users to listen to a list of headings or to listen to each heading in sequence, skipping past the paragraphs, images, links, and other extraneous information. If documents are created properly, they can often form an outline of headings, which serves not only as a way to skip past the navigation but also lets screen reader users "scan" the main ideas of a document without having to read the whole thing. Defining your primary document heading at the beginning of your main content as an
<h1> can provide very quick access to the beginning of the main content.
The one downside to this approach is that only screen reader users have access to this functionality. Browsers do not come with this feature. This means that sighted keyboard users cannot skip from link to link in the same way that screen reader users can.
Verdict: This method is very effective for screen reader users, but sighted keyboard users generally cannot take advantage of it. Even so, there are many reasons to use headings, so this method is highly recommended.
Alternate reading orders
Some developers place the main content first in the reading order and the navigation last - generally using CSS to maintain the navigation first in the page visually. This method makes "skip navigation" links unnecessary, but it raises another question. Should such sites provide "skip to navigation" links? This is a tricky question. Links taking users to the navigation are unexpected, and can lead to some confusion. With or without "skip to navigation" links, screen reader users who want to access the navigation may get lost in the page, wondering if there is any navigation.
This approach also causes a reading and navigation order that is very atypical - and that can be very confusing, particularly for sighted users who are visually tracking the navigation focus that seemingly jumps around the page rather than starting at the beginning.
Verdict: The concept can be useful, but users can becomes disoriented with an atypical reading and navigation order.