E-mail List Archives

Thread: Captions/Transcripts

for

Number of posts in this thread: 5 (In chronological order)

From: Julie Grisham
Date: Mon, Apr 25 2016 12:07PM
Subject: Captions/Transcripts
No previous message | Next message →

Hi everyone!


I have a question about captions and transcripts. Personally, I am deaf,
but in terms of getting information related to compliance in this area, I
am still a bit of a novice.


I understand that both are required to ensure AA compliance. I’d like to
give you a little background information and post a couple specific
questions because this situation is a bit different. If anyone can help by
providing a resource link to WCAG and/or other similar sites to help me,
that would be great!


*Background: *Several tests are developed for students (multiple forms). We
have individual tests that are accommodated for a specific population of
students with disabilities. We cannot bundle all accommodations in one form
due to the technology limitations set by the technology and security specs.
There might be a test that is delivered in large print and Braille. A test
delivered using Text to Speech, a test delivered using sign language videos
(ASL signer in video) and a test delivered using captions for video clips.
There are portions of the tests that are the same across the board, some
variation to get a good sample of results.


For the test that is delivered using captions. There might be one to two
short video clips and the captions are timed according to the voice.
Questions related to the clip may indicate time markers before the question
(example: In the video at 2:20, how….).


We received a request to add a transcript that is just verbatim what is
provided in the captions so the student sees a tab with the video (captions
embedded) and a tab showing the transcript. The target population for this
accommodation are students with a hearing loss who need captions, but do
not use American Sign Language. Those using sign language and who are
deaf/blind are accommodated using different forms.


Typically, the video clips are available in a non-accommodated test and
students taking this test are able to replay the clip and listen as often
as possible. For the captions-accommodated test, the student with the
hearing loss can do the same – replay and read captions as often as needed.


Now, my questions are:


Given this background information, is it necessary to provide transcript in
addition to the captions?


What is the benefit of the transcript if it’s just verbatim what is in the
captions? The transcripts I saw did not have any extra information that is
not already in the captions and it appeared to be distracting for the
student to see there’s something additional to read -- my opinion as a deaf
person who uses captions on a daily basis. It was my understanding from
WCAG that transcripts are typically more descriptive than captions. This is
not the case in this situation.


Using the background information I provided, is it required to add the
transcript even though it’s verbatim? Even though other accommodations are
not embedded on the same test?


Regarding format of transcripts – are there samples of how transcripts can
be displayed online with videos that I might be able to view to get some
ideas how best to deliver this if we still need to provide a transcript. By
format, I’m talking about specific transcript content requirements and also
if it needs to be within the video clip’s player.


I'm sure as I see feedback, I may have more questions. Thanks in advance!

Julie

From: Jonathan Avila
Date: Mon, Apr 25 2016 12:12PM
Subject: Re: Captions/Transcripts
← Previous message | Next message →

> Given this background information, is it necessary to provide transcript in addition to the captions?

Generally transcripts as an additional media alternative may not be required from my experience but I could see some situations where they could be beneficial to some users. For example, captions depending on the environment may not use the users preferred font size, color, and background and in some situations could be difficult for users with low vision who are deaf or hard of hearing to see. In other situations since the captions are moving the user would have to stop the review the video while transcripts are fixed on the screen allowing the user to review without distraction -- this might help some users with cognitive disabilities or low vision.

Jonathan

Jonathan Avila
Chief Accessibility Officer
SSB BART Group
= EMAIL ADDRESS REMOVED =
703.637.8957 (Office)
Visit us online: Website | Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin | Blog
Check out our Digital Accessibility Webinars!


-----Original Message-----
From: WebAIM-Forum [mailto: = EMAIL ADDRESS REMOVED = ] On Behalf Of Julie Grisham
Sent: Monday, April 25, 2016 2:08 PM
To: = EMAIL ADDRESS REMOVED =
Subject: [WebAIM] Captions/Transcripts

Hi everyone!


I have a question about captions and transcripts. Personally, I am deaf, but in terms of getting information related to compliance in this area, I am still a bit of a novice.


I understand that both are required to ensure AA compliance. I’d like to give you a little background information and post a couple specific questions because this situation is a bit different. If anyone can help by providing a resource link to WCAG and/or other similar sites to help me, that would be great!


*Background: *Several tests are developed for students (multiple forms). We have individual tests that are accommodated for a specific population of students with disabilities. We cannot bundle all accommodations in one form due to the technology limitations set by the technology and security specs.
There might be a test that is delivered in large print and Braille. A test delivered using Text to Speech, a test delivered using sign language videos (ASL signer in video) and a test delivered using captions for video clips.
There are portions of the tests that are the same across the board, some variation to get a good sample of results.


For the test that is delivered using captions. There might be one to two short video clips and the captions are timed according to the voice.
Questions related to the clip may indicate time markers before the question
(example: In the video at 2:20, how….).


We received a request to add a transcript that is just verbatim what is provided in the captions so the student sees a tab with the video (captions
embedded) and a tab showing the transcript. The target population for this accommodation are students with a hearing loss who need captions, but do not use American Sign Language. Those using sign language and who are deaf/blind are accommodated using different forms.


Typically, the video clips are available in a non-accommodated test and students taking this test are able to replay the clip and listen as often as possible. For the captions-accommodated test, the student with the hearing loss can do the same – replay and read captions as often as needed.


Now, my questions are:


Given this background information, is it necessary to provide transcript in addition to the captions?


What is the benefit of the transcript if it’s just verbatim what is in the captions? The transcripts I saw did not have any extra information that is not already in the captions and it appeared to be distracting for the student to see there’s something additional to read -- my opinion as a deaf person who uses captions on a daily basis. It was my understanding from WCAG that transcripts are typically more descriptive than captions. This is not the case in this situation.


Using the background information I provided, is it required to add the transcript even though it’s verbatim? Even though other accommodations are not embedded on the same test?


Regarding format of transcripts – are there samples of how transcripts can be displayed online with videos that I might be able to view to get some ideas how best to deliver this if we still need to provide a transcript. By format, I’m talking about specific transcript content requirements and also if it needs to be within the video clip’s player.


I'm sure as I see feedback, I may have more questions. Thanks in advance!

Julie

From: _mallory
Date: Mon, Apr 25 2016 1:48PM
Subject: Re: Captions/Transcripts
← Previous message | Next message →

I wish I had had this functionality when I was in school:
https://fronteers.nl/congres/2015/sessions/what-is-the-business-case-for-accessibility-alice-bartlett
this is an example video on the Fronteers website, where clicking
(with a mouse only, unfortunately) on any bit of text brings the
video right directly to that spot.

On long videos, this really lets me ctrl-f and search a term
and then jump right to that part of the video.

Not quite answering your question but I see the value here of
transcripts that are not more than the captions.

In general transcripts work with ctrl-f and captions don't, or
I don't know how to ctrl-f captions...

_mallory

On Mon, Apr 25, 2016 at 01:07:40PM -0500, Julie Grisham wrote:
> Hi everyone!
>
>
> I have a question about captions and transcripts. Personally, I am deaf,
> but in terms of getting information related to compliance in this area, I
> am still a bit of a novice.
>
>
> I understand that both are required to ensure AA compliance. I’d like to
> give you a little background information and post a couple specific
> questions because this situation is a bit different. If anyone can help by
> providing a resource link to WCAG and/or other similar sites to help me,
> that would be great!
>
>
> *Background: *Several tests are developed for students (multiple forms). We
> have individual tests that are accommodated for a specific population of
> students with disabilities. We cannot bundle all accommodations in one form
> due to the technology limitations set by the technology and security specs.
> There might be a test that is delivered in large print and Braille. A test
> delivered using Text to Speech, a test delivered using sign language videos
> (ASL signer in video) and a test delivered using captions for video clips.
> There are portions of the tests that are the same across the board, some
> variation to get a good sample of results.
>
>
> For the test that is delivered using captions. There might be one to two
> short video clips and the captions are timed according to the voice.
> Questions related to the clip may indicate time markers before the question
> (example: In the video at 2:20, how….).
>
>
> We received a request to add a transcript that is just verbatim what is
> provided in the captions so the student sees a tab with the video (captions
> embedded) and a tab showing the transcript. The target population for this
> accommodation are students with a hearing loss who need captions, but do
> not use American Sign Language. Those using sign language and who are
> deaf/blind are accommodated using different forms.
>
>
> Typically, the video clips are available in a non-accommodated test and
> students taking this test are able to replay the clip and listen as often
> as possible. For the captions-accommodated test, the student with the
> hearing loss can do the same – replay and read captions as often as needed.
>
>
> Now, my questions are:
>
>
> Given this background information, is it necessary to provide transcript in
> addition to the captions?
>
>
> What is the benefit of the transcript if it’s just verbatim what is in the
> captions? The transcripts I saw did not have any extra information that is
> not already in the captions and it appeared to be distracting for the
> student to see there’s something additional to read -- my opinion as a deaf
> person who uses captions on a daily basis. It was my understanding from
> WCAG that transcripts are typically more descriptive than captions. This is
> not the case in this situation.
>
>
> Using the background information I provided, is it required to add the
> transcript even though it’s verbatim? Even though other accommodations are
> not embedded on the same test?
>
>
> Regarding format of transcripts – are there samples of how transcripts can
> be displayed online with videos that I might be able to view to get some
> ideas how best to deliver this if we still need to provide a transcript. By
> format, I’m talking about specific transcript content requirements and also
> if it needs to be within the video clip’s player.
>
>
> I'm sure as I see feedback, I may have more questions. Thanks in advance!
>
> Julie
> > > >

From: John Foliot
Date: Mon, Apr 25 2016 3:34PM
Subject: Re: Captions/Transcripts
← Previous message | Next message →

Hi Julie,

Not to contradict my colleague Jon Avila, if you are mandated to be WCAG
2.0 AA compliant, then you need captions, transcripts, and (audio)
descriptions:

*1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded):* Captions
<https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#captionsdef> are provided for all prerecorded
<https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#prerecordeddef> audio
<https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#audiodef> content in synchronized media
<https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#synchronizedmediadef>, except when the media
is a media alternative for text
<https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#multimedia-alt-textdef> and is clearly
labeled as such. (Level A)

*1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded):* Audio description
<https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#audiodescdef> is provided for all prerecorded
<https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#prerecordeddef> video
<https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#videodef> content in synchronized media
<https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#synchronizedmediadef>. (Level AA)

...and, although not specifically called out, Transcripts would be a
solution to (as the alternative to a time-based media):

*1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded):* For prerecorded
<https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#prerecordeddef> audio-only
<https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#audio-onlydef> and prerecorded video-only
<https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#video-onlydef> media, the following are
true, except when the audio or video is a media alternative for text
<https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#multimedia-alt-textdef> and is clearly
labeled as such: (Level A)

-

*Prerecorded Video-only: *Either an alternative for time-based media or
an audio track is provided that presents equivalent information for
prerecorded video-only content.


A *simplistic way* of understanding this is that:

- *captions *are for deaf users,
- (audio) *descriptions *are for blind users,
- *transcripts *would address deaf/blind users, as well as other users
that may require an alternative format (such as cognitive users).

One aspect of transcripts (unique to them) is that they do not require
timing synchronization (whereas both captions and audio descriptions do).

Caption files are usually marked up with timing information (whether WebVTT
or TTML, or any of a number of different time-stamp formats), whereas a
good transcript *might* instead be marked up in HTML, taking advantage of
the semantic structure that HTML brings to a longer document (which could
also be 'transformed' into another format - braille output for example). So
while there may not be any apparent difference between your current
"captions" and "transcripts", I might suggest that is because one of the
two is improperly implemented :-)

You will note as well that I have been putting (audio) in parenthesis when
speaking of descriptions: while WCAG specifically calls for audio
description, some organizations are stepping back a bit from that
(see: Appendix
B: List of Exclusions at
http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pol/doc-eng.aspx?id#601&;section=HTML).

This is currently an untested 'legal' requirement as far as I am aware, and
we have numerous examples of websites now offering "interactive"
transcripts that offer both the captions as well as the text that would be
the audio description (which, when combined essentially *is* the
transcript), and providing that as a "combo" of sorts. (This may or may not
be legally accepted - again this is untested legal ground).

I have also seen proof of concept examples where the "audio" description is
provided to the non-sighted user as a text file, allowing the user to parse
that file with their screen reader at the more rapid reading rate that most
screen reader users adopt - again, all interesting and potentially useful
solutions to addressing the actual user need, but uncertain whether or not
the legal need is being met.

This might be more than you need, but I will also point you to the
following resources:

Media Accessibility User Requirements:
https://www.w3.org/TR/media-accessibility-reqs/
DCMP Captioning Key: http://www.captioningkey.org/
The Described and Captioned Media Program: http://www.vdrdc.org/dln/dcmp

Hope this helps.

JF






On Mon, Apr 25, 2016 at 2:48 PM, _mallory < = EMAIL ADDRESS REMOVED = > wrote:

> I wish I had had this functionality when I was in school:
>
> https://fronteers.nl/congres/2015/sessions/what-is-the-business-case-for-accessibility-alice-bartlett
> this is an example video on the Fronteers website, where clicking
> (with a mouse only, unfortunately) on any bit of text brings the
> video right directly to that spot.
>
> On long videos, this really lets me ctrl-f and search a term
> and then jump right to that part of the video.
>
> Not quite answering your question but I see the value here of
> transcripts that are not more than the captions.
>
> In general transcripts work with ctrl-f and captions don't, or
> I don't know how to ctrl-f captions...
>
> _mallory
>
> On Mon, Apr 25, 2016 at 01:07:40PM -0500, Julie Grisham wrote:
> > Hi everyone!
> >
> >
> > I have a question about captions and transcripts. Personally, I am deaf,
> > but in terms of getting information related to compliance in this area, I
> > am still a bit of a novice.
> >
> >
> > I understand that both are required to ensure AA compliance. I’d like to
> > give you a little background information and post a couple specific
> > questions because this situation is a bit different. If anyone can help
> by
> > providing a resource link to WCAG and/or other similar sites to help me,
> > that would be great!
> >
> >
> > *Background: *Several tests are developed for students (multiple forms).
> We
> > have individual tests that are accommodated for a specific population of
> > students with disabilities. We cannot bundle all accommodations in one
> form
> > due to the technology limitations set by the technology and security
> specs.
> > There might be a test that is delivered in large print and Braille. A
> test
> > delivered using Text to Speech, a test delivered using sign language
> videos
> > (ASL signer in video) and a test delivered using captions for video
> clips.
> > There are portions of the tests that are the same across the board, some
> > variation to get a good sample of results.
> >
> >
> > For the test that is delivered using captions. There might be one to two
> > short video clips and the captions are timed according to the voice.
> > Questions related to the clip may indicate time markers before the
> question
> > (example: In the video at 2:20, how….).
> >
> >
> > We received a request to add a transcript that is just verbatim what is
> > provided in the captions so the student sees a tab with the video
> (captions
> > embedded) and a tab showing the transcript. The target population for
> this
> > accommodation are students with a hearing loss who need captions, but do
> > not use American Sign Language. Those using sign language and who are
> > deaf/blind are accommodated using different forms.
> >
> >
> > Typically, the video clips are available in a non-accommodated test and
> > students taking this test are able to replay the clip and listen as often
> > as possible. For the captions-accommodated test, the student with the
> > hearing loss can do the same – replay and read captions as often as
> needed.
> >
> >
> > Now, my questions are:
> >
> >
> > Given this background information, is it necessary to provide transcript
> in
> > addition to the captions?
> >
> >
> > What is the benefit of the transcript if it’s just verbatim what is in
> the
> > captions? The transcripts I saw did not have any extra information that
> is
> > not already in the captions and it appeared to be distracting for the
> > student to see there’s something additional to read -- my opinion as a
> deaf
> > person who uses captions on a daily basis. It was my understanding from
> > WCAG that transcripts are typically more descriptive than captions. This
> is
> > not the case in this situation.
> >
> >
> > Using the background information I provided, is it required to add the
> > transcript even though it’s verbatim? Even though other accommodations
> are
> > not embedded on the same test?
> >
> >
> > Regarding format of transcripts – are there samples of how transcripts
> can
> > be displayed online with videos that I might be able to view to get some
> > ideas how best to deliver this if we still need to provide a transcript.
> By
> > format, I’m talking about specific transcript content requirements and
> also
> > if it needs to be within the video clip’s player.
> >
> >
> > I'm sure as I see feedback, I may have more questions. Thanks in advance!
> >
> > Julie
> > > > > > > > > > > > >



--
John Foliot
Principal Accessibility Consultant
Deque Systems Inc.
= EMAIL ADDRESS REMOVED =

Advancing the mission of digital accessibility and inclusion

From: Jared Smith
Date: Mon, Apr 25 2016 4:03PM
Subject: Re: Captions/Transcripts
← Previous message | No next message

John Foliot wrote:
> Hi Julie,
>
> Not to contradict my colleague Jon Avila, if you are mandated to be WCAG
> 2.0 AA compliant, then you need captions, transcripts, and (audio)
> descriptions:

Not to contradict my friend John Foliot, but transcripts are not
strictly required at Level AA.

1.2.1 deals with audio-only (e.g., an MP3 file) or video-only (video
with no audio component). We'll assume you're talking about multimedia
(audio and video together), so this wouldn't apply here.

For multimedia, 1.2.2 (Level A) requires captions. If the multimedia
has visual-only content, then it must have either a descriptive
transcript OR audio description to meet 1.2.3 (Level A). However, if
the multimedia has visual-only content, then it *must* have audio
description to meet 1.2.5 (Level AA).

So if your multimedia does not have visual-only content, then only
captions are necessary for both A and AA. If it does have visual-only
information, you must provide audio descriptions at AA. A descriptive
transcript is then not required until AAA.

Of course this does not optimally meet the needs of users. We
recommend (see http://webaim.org/blog/wcag-next/) that a better
approach is to swap the audio description and descriptive transcript
requirements - treat descriptive transcripts as AA and audio
descriptions as AAA.

Much of the confusion regarding these requirements comes from WCAG's
unintelligible terms. For example, they call descriptive transcripts
"an alternative for time-based media" - a term made only more
confusing if you read its definition -
https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#alt-time-based-mediadef

Jared